Ribbentrop Molotov Agreement
The deal stunned the world. John Gunther recalled in August 1939 in Moscow that the news of the 19 August trade agreement surprised journalists and diplomats during the Soviet-French-British negotiations, but hoped for world peace. They did not expect the announcement of the non-aggression pact on 21 August: “Nothing more incredible was conceivable. Astonishment and skepticism quickly turned into dismay and alarm.”  The news was greeted with total dismay and surprise by government leaders and the world`s media, most of whom knew only the Franco-British negotiations that had been taking place for months;   by Germany`s allies, especially Japan; Communist International and foreign communist parties; and Jewish communities around the world.  The German-Soviet pact is also called the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, after the two foreign ministers who negotiated the agreement: German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov. The pact had two parts. An economic agreement signed on 19 August 1939 provided that Germany would exchange industrial goods for Soviet raw materials. On August 23, 1939, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union also signed a ten-year non-aggression pact, in which each of the signatories promised not to attack the other. On January 10, 1941, Germany and the Soviet Union signed an agreement to settle several ongoing issues.  Secret protocols of the new agreement amended the “secret additional protocols” of the German-Soviet Treaty on Borders and Friendship and sent the Lithuanian Band back to the Soviet Union in exchange for $7.5 million (31.5 million Marks).
 The agreement officially established the border between Germany and the Soviet Union between the Igorka River and the Baltic Sea.  In addition, it extended the trade regime of the German-Soviet trade agreement from 1940 until 1 August 1942, increased deliveries beyond the level of the first year of the agreement, the trade rights populated in the Baltics and Bessarabia, calculated the compensation of German real estate interests in the Baltic states, now occupied by the Soviets, and covered other issues.  It also concerned the migration to Germany of ethnic Germans and German citizens in the Soviet Baltic regions within two and a half months, as well as the migration to the Soviet Union of Baltic and “Belarusian” “nationals” in the territories held by Germany.  On 3 October, Friedrich Werner von der Schulenburg, the German ambassador to Moscow, Joachim Ribbentrop, announced that the Soviet government was ready to cede the city of Vilnius and its surroundings.